As soon as the treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed between the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and the Quraysh, the tribe of Khuza’ah came under the protection of Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and Banu Bakr sided with the Quraysh. Relations between the Quraysh and the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم remained peaceful and both sides resumed their business. The Quraysh expanded their trade in order to make up for what they had lost during the wars against the Muslims. Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم pursued his task of conveying the Message of Islam to the whole of mankind while simultaneously strengthening the position of the Islamic State over the Arabian Peninsula and providing safety and security within the State itself.
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم defeated the Jewish fortifications at Khaybar and then he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم sent his envoys to the kings of various states and established foreign contacts. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم expanded the authority of the Islamic State to the point where it engulfed the whole of the Arabian Peninsula. Then exactly one year after al-Hudaybiyah the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم called on the people to prepare for the ‘Umra ul Qada (making up the Umrah missed at Hudaybiyah) having been excluded from performing it the previous year. A convoy of two thousand men marched from Madinah and, in accordance with the Hudaybiyah agreement, none of the men carried more than the single sword in its sheath as prescribed by it.
However, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم feared betrayal by the Quraysh and he prepared an army of a hundred riders appointing Muhammad ibn Maslamah at its head, with instructions to lead the convoy, but not to trespass the sanctity of Makkah, which they duly obeyed. The Muslims went on to perform the fulfilled ‘Umrah and they returned to Madinah without incident. After their return to Madinah the people of Makkah began embracing Islam. Khalid ibn al- Walid, ‘Amr ibn al-‘As and the guardian of the Ka’bah, ‘Uthman ibn Talhah embraced Islam, followed by a large number of people from Makkah. The Muslims grew stronger by the day, whereas fear and weakness crept into the Quraysh’s ranks.
When the Muslims returned from the battle of Mu’tah, having suffered a large number of casualties, the Quraysh deemed that the Muslims were finished, so they motivated the tribe of Banu Bakr against Khuza’ah and supplied them with weapons. Banu Bakr attacked Khuza’ah killing some of their men and the remaining Khuza’ah fled to Makkah for refuge. ‘Amru ibn Salim al-Khuza’i then hurried to Madinah and told the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم what had happened and implored his help. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم replied, “May you be helped, O ‘Amru ibn Salim.”
Upon this the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم decided that this breach of the treaty by the Quraysh could not be ignored nor could it be corrected except by the conquest of Makkah. The Quraysh became afraid of the consequences of breaking the treaty, so they sent Abu Sufyan to Madinah with the aim of strengthening the treaty by asking for an extension. However, Abu Sufyan did not go directly to meet Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and instead went to the home of his daughter Umm Habibah, wife of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. As he moved to sit on the Messenger of Allah’s bed she folded it up so that he could not sit on it. When her father asked her whether she had folded it because he was too good for it or whether it was too good for him, she replied, “It is the Messenger of Allah’s bed and you are a filthy polytheist so I do not want you to sit on it.” Abu Sufyan replied, “By Allah since you left me you have turned bad.” He then left in a rage.
Later Abu Sufyan managed to talk to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and to ask for the extension to the treaty which he so badly desired, but he did not receive any reply as he was ignored completely. Next he went to Abu Bakr and pleaded with him to speak to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم on his behalf. Abu Bakr refused to do so. Then he approached ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab who rebuked him harshly saying, “Should I intercede for you with the Messenger of Allah? By Allah if I had only an ant I would fight you with it.” Finally he went to see ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib who was with Fatimah and he appealed to him to intercede with the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. ‘Ali answered that if the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم had determined a thing then it was useless for anyone to try to talk him out of it. Turning to Fatimah he asked her to let her son Hasan be a protector between men. She said, “None could give protection against the Messenger of Allah.”
At this point Abu Sufyan became desperate and he rode off shortly back to Makkah where he told his people about his experience in Madinah. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم urged his people to prepare for battle and he marched with them towards Makkah. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was hoping to take the Quraysh by surprise in order to force them to surrender and thus avoid bloodshed.
The Muslim army numbering ten thousand set off from Madinah to conquer Makkah. They eventually reached Marr al-Dahran, which was about five kilometers from Makkah, without the knowledge of the Quraysh. Although, the Quraysh expected an invasion and their leaders were still debating how they should counter it. During this time, the ever vigilant Abu Sufyan came out to assess the danger that was looming over Makkah when he was met by al- ‘Abbas, who had by then accepted Islam. He was riding the Messenger of Allah’s white mule on an errand to warn the Quraysh to seek protection or face annihilation from the Muslims, since the Quraysh were not in a position to stand in the Messenger of Allah’s way. Al-‘Abbas said to Abu Sufyan, “This is the Messenger of Allah and his army and I fear for you and the Quraysh if he should enter Makkah by force.” Abu Sufyan asked, “What is there to do?” Al- ‘Abbas asked him to ride behind him and together they would go to meet the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and seek his protection. As they proceeded through the Muslim encampment, they passed by ‘Umar’s fire. ‘Umar recognized the Messenger’s mule and also spotted his implacable enemy Abu Sufyan.
Realizing that al-‘Abbas wanted to seek protection for Abu Sufyan, ‘Umar dashed to the tent where the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was in order to ask him to cut off Abu Sufyan’s head. However, al-‘Abbas galloped his mule there ahead of ‘Umar exclaiming as he entered, “O Messenger of Allah, I have offered him my protection.” A serious argument between ‘Umar and al-‘Abbas arose, whereupon the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to al-‘Abbas, “Take him away to your quarters and bring him back in the morning.” The next day Abu Sufyan was brought to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم whereupon he embraced Islam.
Al-‘Abbas said to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, “O Messenger of Allah! Abu Sufyan is a man who likes to have some cause for pride, could you not do something for him?” Upon hearing this Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم proclaimed that, “He who enters Abu Sufyan’s house is safe, and he who locks his door is safe, and he who enters the Masjid is safe.” Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم then ordered that Abu Sufyan be detained in the narrow part of the valley where the mountain projected so that the whole Muslim army would pass by him and he would see them. Afterwards, he hurried back to his people shouting at the top of his voice, “This is Muhammad who has come to you with a force you cannot resist. He who enters Abu Sufyan’s house is safe, and he who locks his door is safe, and he who enters the Masjid is safe.” On hearing this the Quraysh aborted their resistance. Then the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم marched and entered Makkah, while remaining on the alert. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم had instructed his commanders to split into four divisions and not to fight or shed any blood unless they were forced to do so. The army entered Makkah meeting no resistance except the division of Khalid ibn al-Walid, who quickly dealt with it.
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم dismounted at the top of Makkah where he stopped for awhile before marching towards the Ka’bah, which he circumambulated seven times. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم then summoned ‘Uthman ibn Talhah and he opened the Ka’bah. People gathered around him, and he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم addressed them by reciting the verse:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ
“O mankind, We created you from male and female, and made you into peoples and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you in the sight of Allah is that who has “At-Taqwa”. Verily, Allah is All knowing. All-Aware.” [TMQ Al-Hujurat, 49:13]
Then the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم asked, “O Quraysh, what do you think I am about to do with you?” They replied, “Good! You are a noble brother, son of a noble brother.” He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said, “Go your own way for you are free.” Inside the Ka’bah, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ordered the pictures of angels and prophets which were decorating its walls to be torn down. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم also found a dove made out of wood which he broke in his hands and then threw it away. Lastly, Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم pointed to the multitude of idols present with a stick in his hand and he recited the verse:
وَقُلْ جَاء الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا
“And say: Truth has come and Batil has vanished. Surely! Batil is ever bound to vanish.” [TMQ Al-Isra, 17:81]
All the idols collapsed onto their backs one after the other, then they were burned, broken up and disposed of. Now the sacred house was finally purified. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم remained in Makkah for fifteen days, during which time he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم organized its affairs and taught the people Islam. Thus was Makkah completely liberated and as a result the main obstacle standing in the way of the Islamic campaign had finally been overcome. The great victory was achieved with only a few pockets of resistance, such as Hunayn and the city of Ta’if, remaining in the Arabian Peninsula. These were not expected to prove difficult to remove.
This is an extract from the book “The Islamic State” by Sheikh Taqiuddin an-Nabahani.